47-year-old female who had the onset of persistent vertigo. The first evaluations revealed right beating nystagmus on gaze straight and to the right, unsteady gait with limb ataxia, and positive head thrust to the left. Improvement seemed to be occurring in that gait deviation with eyes closed was no longer present. Vestibular physical therapy exercises were started. On the next evaluations there was paroxysmal positional vertigo from the left ear and minimal neurosensory hearing loss. An audiogram showed minor neurosensory deafness.
41 year-old male was recently diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis (MS) after episodes of leg and shoulder weakness and parasthesis. Lately he experiences dizziness. His MRI showed several demyelinating lesions, other ancillary tests showed demyelinating damage to the auditory and visual pathway. Currently he has no functional or sensorial deficiencies. He was offered several immunomodulatory treatment options: Rebif, Betaferon and Copaxone, and asks about their pros, cons and complications, and about the differential diagnosis.
27-year-old female with a diagnosis of suspected fibromyalgia. Her history includes long standing widespread musculo – skeletal pain connected to a feeling of general slight illness, as well as a series of accompanying symptoms: frequent migraines, cervicalgia, stomach disorders, chest pain and tachycardia . Therefore, she has carried out various follow-ups that each time detected a different problem for which the relevant therapy was set out.
33-year-old female underwent an episode of dizziness followed by speech disturbances and some right hand weakness. Her physical exam showed very mild signs of right cerebelar dysfunction. The MRI found mid-Vermian Cavernoma with clear signs of past bleeding and Bulging into the fourth ventricle. A surgery for resection of the cavernous malformation was recommended.
A 43 years old woman man who presented with various symptoms consisting of visual disturbances, burning sensation in the eyes, headache, hypersensitivity to noise and dizziness. Repeated neurological examinations were reported normal. A thorough neurological work-up that included blood tests, brain MRI, EEG and echocardiography was normal.
47-year-old female with neck problems underwent Blink Reflex tests and EMG of the neck, and was diagnosed with cervical dystonia. Medical treatments available for cervical dystonia include anticholinergic therapy, Baclofen, or deep brain stimulation, but the mainstay of therapy remains botulinum toxin injections, which are considered the superior treatment for symptom control with less side effects in comparison to oral medications.